Climate Of Lahore And Thermal Comfort and ease Environmental Sciences Essay

Climate Of Lahore And Thermal Ease and comfort Environmental Sciences Essay

Chapter 2

2.1 Introduction

Climate has great influence on building for its electricity consumption and building performance. Energy conserving design requires the factor of the climate. The entire cooling and heating requirements in the properties is managed by climate during summer season and winter season. As we have selected our web page in Kala Shah Kaku, Punjab and kala shah kaku is normally found in Lahore region therefore the information of the climatic info of Lahore place is listed below.

2.2 Climatic classification:

Climate could be classified in conditions building design in which the country will be split into five zones in such a way that the difference of climate from zone to zone can be seen in the building style, gauranting some particular provision for every single zone. Based on these criteria, there are five significant climatic zones,






Types of climate Typical Characteristics

Cold Excessive heat reduction for the majority of the year

Minimum Temperature: below -15 °C

Temperate Excessive warmth lost for part of year

Inadequate heat loss for part of year

Temperature changes: -30 °C to 30 °C

Hot/Dry Overheating for most part of the year

Dry air allow evaporation

Temperature ranges: -10 °C to 45 °C

High radiation

Strong Winds

Hot/Humid Overheating for almost all of year

Humid air inhibits cooling

Temperature often above 20 C

Mean relative humidity around 80 %

High rainfall using months

Table 2.1 typical features of different types of climates

2.3 Climatic zones of Pakistan:

Pakistan has a variety of climatic conditions. The Northern and North- Western parts of Pakistan are cooler, the center of the Punjab is incredibly hot and semi-arid, and the Baluchistan is awesome and arid whereas the coastal strip is usually nice and humid. In chilly regions, through the winter temperature drops very well below the zero. In the desert regions, the maximum temperature remains above 40°C during almost all of the summertime period; with a peak often approaching 50°C.The climatic regions have already been divided predicated on various criteria.

Fig 2.1 map of climatic zones of Pakistan

2.4 Weather of Lahore Region:

Lahore lies 217 meters above sea level and it lies between 31°15′ and 31°45′ North latitude and 74°1′ and 74°39′ East longitude. On the North and West Lahore is normally bounded by Sheikhupura district, Wagah surrounds Lahore on east, and on the south of Lahore there is usually Kasur District. The river Ravi flows on the North of Lahore. Lahore city includes a total land location of 404km2.

The Lahore area comes under the normal composite zone, according to climatic area map. It lies nearby the hot dry zone and in summer months the wind way is in a way that the wind blows northeast towards southwest of the city affecting the weather of Lahore region. The effect of hot dry zone starts off from March and is still till September as the wind direction is southwest which means from hot dry area towards Lahore region. The primary features of this season are that the winds blown happen to be hot and full of dust through the daytime but are cooler in nights. Throughout the day very strong wind blows. The climate of Lahore region could be divided into the following broad categories:

2.4.1 Hot and dry:

Hot and dry temperature is found in the weeks of March and April. In these months the air is dried out with the clear sky and no sea breeze to check the excessive high temperature as the Lahore research paper generator location is located more than 1000 km from the nearest sea, the heat range rise is razor-sharp. In the mid-March the utmost temperatures reaches up to 90 F and till the middle of April temperature ranges reaches up to 100 F. Because of clear sky, nights will be cooler having the average temperature of almost 65 F (18 °C). The rainfall is quite less in this length.

2.4.2 Very hot and dry:

In the a few months of May perhaps and June the elements of Lahore is very hot and dried out and the heat is at its peak in these weeks. In the second week of Might, the temperature reaches up to 110 F (43 °C).The heat is normally oppressive, humidity level is usually low with scorching and dry wind which is called loo in local terminology blowing most of the time. The month of June still is always hotter with the temperatures sometimes reaching to 119 F (48 °C). However in June due to powerful low pressure produced by the serious heat, sometimes some dampness from Arabian Sea finds its way to this region and causes rain which for the brings the temp down temporarily.

2.4.3 Popular and wet:

The months of July to September will be rainy. Monson clouds travel from the Bay of Bengal and after vacationing about 100 km over India gets to Pakistan and type in Lahore from the South- East. This rain system in these weeks called Monsoons. That is a regular characteristic of the Punjab, in this nation. The weather is cool and enjoyable when it rains, otherwise scorching and humid. Although the heat range decreases significantly, from practically 106 F ( 41 °C ) right before the monsoons starts in Lahore to about 95 F ( 35 °C ) but as the monsoon arrives generally there is the increase in the relative humidity which heightens from significantly less than 25% to a lot more than 65%. The temperature along with the excessive humidity makes the elements very exhausting. Moreover often the rainfall falls with such an avalanche that it drowns the low lying area and people need to undergo great hardships so this weather is a blended blessing.

2.4.4 Warm and dry:

Warm and dry weather conditions remains in the months of October and November. Since the monsoon stops by the end of September, the elements again becomes dry again however the temperature is considerably less hot this time around. The dry continental air flow remains in the region. The temperature is average to warm during times whereas the weather is certainly cooler in nights. The average high temperature is practically 85 F (29 °C) and at night because of dry air temperatures it can lower to 53 F (12 °C) especially towards the end of October or early November. There is absolutely no rain in this year and this season may be the driest season when compared with other seasons. This serious dryness creates a lot of dirt and haziness which effects in pollution in the surroundings.

2.4.5 Nice and dry:

The most pleasurable months of all will be December January February in Lahore. This can be a most perfect weather conditions of Lahore. The peak temperature is nearly 68 F (20 °C) and the peak low heat range is nearly 41 F (6 °C). The climate remains cool, refreshing and sunny. Even so sometimes, a rain bearing system referred to as western disturbance which includes its source in MEDITERRANEAN AND BEYOND affects the Lahore area and causes rain. However the rain is

not so weighty neither it remains to be for a long duration. So the weather most of the days remains sunny, dry out and refreshing.

In fact, the climate of Lahore is popular and dry for the maximum period of the entire year with a short winter period with extremely refreshing weather.

2.5 Climatic indicators of Lahore:

The table below displays average monthly weather indicators in Lahore which is dependant on 8 years of traditional weather readings.

Temperature in: Fahrenheit

Table 2.2 average every month climate indicators in Lahore

2.6 Hot dried out climate:

The hot dried out equatorial land lying between the two mean twelve-monthly isotherms of 68°F (20°C) has regions where the temperature during the summer season may reach 43.3°C or may go beyond and the vapor pressure is usually below 25millibars.

2.6.1 Components of hot dry climate:

1 Seasonal variation

2 Air temperature

3 Humidity

4 Precipitation

5 Wind

6 Sky circumstances and solar radiation

7 Dust storm Seasonal variation:

In these regions now there are two major seasons;

hot season


Fig 3.2 Monthly averages of the bare minimum and maximum daily temperature ranges.

°C/°F Air temperature:

The main features of the climate are heat range remains high during the day 80-130°F (26.67-54.44°C) in the summer months along with good sunlight reflecting pitilessly from light dry and parched earth.

There is however a big difference between summer season and winter temperatures because of the varying altitude of sunshine. During winter your day temperature is normally as high as 90°F (32.22°C) however the temperature is quite low at nights ,whereas during summer the temp falls to 50°F(10°C) weighed against 70F (21.11C) at night. Humidity:

Humidity is still low, Relative humidity varies with the atmosphere temperature. It can move below 20% in evening to over 40% during the night. V.P fairly constant changing with position and season from about 500-1500 N/m2 Precipitation:

The volume of rainfall or precipitation is generally noted as the average mm/evening or mm/month which provides an advantageous indication regarding seasonal changes.

Usually, average maximum rainfall in 24 hours or the common number of days in which a certain volume (in cm.) of rainfall happened can be given. This data is effective as an indicator of the rainfall intensity, that may affect the look of house windows, roofs and sewerage etc.

July and August are the months in which just about all rainfall take place, whereas June and September likewise have some rainy days. For the rest of the year, hardly any rain fall occurs in Lahore. Based on temperatures and precipitation info, through the hot and rainy period it isn’t advised to choose between June and September. All of those other year is dried out with temperate daytime temperatures.

Fig 3.3 Precipitation is normally any kind of drinking water that falls from the sky within the weather. Sky circumstances and solar radiations:

The skies happen to be without clouds for the most of the period of the entire year where as frequent dust particles haze and storms arise typically in the afternoon. Direct solar radiation is extreme and is usually amplified by radiation reflected from the barren and light colored landscape.

Fig 3.4 Monthly normal numbers of hours of sunshine per day. Wind:

Winds are mostly indigenous; they are generally low in the morning even so increasing towards afternoon and so are optimum in the afternoon, most commonly accompanied by whirlwinds of dirt and sand. Dust storms:

Dust storms usually occurs on summer time afternoons which is the most intolerable portion of the evening , when routine winds blow at 15-220 miles each hour. These dust storms as well occurs in other parts of your day i.e. at night and nights.

2.7 Climatic style of building:

Climate includes a great effect on building performance and energy consumption of the construction. The process of recognizing, deducing and managing climatic effects at the building could very well be the most challenging part of building design. The primary objectives of climatic design of creating should include:

To minimize electricity cost of a building.

To take benefit of maximum of natural strength rather than mechanical system and power.

To provide secure and healthy environment for inhabitants.

2.8 Factors affecting climatic design:

The native micro-environment and site factors influence using the environmental conditions of the construction. Some important factors related to site ought to be included while producing the climatic analysis:

Topography- elevation, slopes, hills and valleys, ground surface area conditions.

Vegetations – elevation, mass, silhouette, texture, location, growth patterns.

Built forms – local buildings, surface conditions

Important thermal design elements which should be looked at include: solar warmth gain, conduction heat flow and ventilation heat flow. The design variables in architectural terms which are essential to be considered are:

Shape – surface-to-volume level ratio; orientation; building elevation.

Building fabric – products and structure; thermal insulation; surface qualities; shading and sunshine control.

Fenestration – the size, job and orientation of house windows; window glass materials; external and internal shading devices

Ventilation – air-tightness; outdoor oxygen; cross ventilation and all natural ventilation.

2.9 Thermal comfort and ease:

There is no approved common for thermal comfort. This is simply not astonishing, as persons can and do stay in a wide selection of climates from the equator to substantial latitudes. An Internationally- accepted definition of thermal comfort, utilized by ASHRAE, is “that condition of mind which expresses fulfillment with the thermal environment” (ISO7330).

Perceptions of the environment are influenced by air temperature, radiant temp, relative humidity, oxygen velocity, activity and clothing.

Fig 3.5 obtaining comfort in buildings

2.9.1 The comfort zone:

The Comfort Zone means the range of temperature circumstances of air movement, humidity and exposure to direct radiations, under which a normally clothed person feels cozy. This will differ for Indoor conditions when compared with Outdoor conditions. This may also vary for diverse cultures and areas and varying climate circumstances.

As an Architects we apply our buildings never to only create cozy inside environments, but also aesthetical and effective spaces outside our buildings.

2.9.2 Thermal relaxation index:

A thermal ease and comfort index serves the objective to evaluate the effect of environmental aspect on the thermal sense of inhabitants. Amount of methods have already been found in the previously to evaluate the thermal comfort level. However it is not possible to gratify everyone in a setting up and a little number of individuals are generally discontented with the thermal environment because of individual variations. Several attempts have been made to produce a subjective and quantitative way of representing the rhetorical writing thermal ease.

Thermal comfort state in tropical summer conditions is given by Sharma and All at the Central Construction Analysis Institute, Roorkee, India. The ranges and optimum ideals receive in table.

Thermal sensation

Range °C

Optimum value °C

Slightly cool






Slightly warm



Table 3.3: temp ranges in various thermal zones

2.9.3 Optimal settings for indoor temperature:

Researchers have completed much research on the most suitable comfort conditions, and also have come up with general comfort effects like powerful warmth, the recent comfort standards established by ASHRAE (American society of heating, refrigerating and air condition engineers) for an individual performing light work are:

Thermal comfort conditions:

Air temperature 73-77 F Relative humidity below 60 %

Mean radiant temp equal to air temperature

Air velocity 10-45 ft/min



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